Hajj and Umrah rites
Types of rites
“The pilgrim can choose between three types of Ihram (the intention to enter the state of consecration for Hajj or Umrah): 1- Ifrad (Hajj alone): One intends Ihram for Hajj only. This is the best kind amongst the three. The pilgrim intends Ihram saying: ‘I intend to perform Hajj and entered the state of Ihram for the sake of Allah the Almighty.’ Or he/she pronounces the Talbiya: ‘O Allah, I respond to Your call for Hajj.’ The pilgrim should then perform Tawaf and Saei for Hajj and remain in the state of Ihram until the completion of Hajj rites. 2- Qiran (Umrah followed by Hajj combined): the pilgrim intends one Ihram for both Hajj and Umrah saying, ‘I intend to perform Umrah and Hajj.’ Or ‘O Allah, Labayka for Umrah and Hajj.’ The pilgrim should perform Tawaf al-Qudoom (Tawaf performed by outsiders) and Saei for Hajj while remaining in the state of Ihram. If the pilgrim performs Tawaf al-Ifadha (re-visit to the Masjid Al Haram), then Saei is not mandatory since he/she has already done the Saei after Tawqaf al Qudoom. One Tawaf and one Saei are sufficient for pilgrims who are on Qiran. 3- Al Tamattua (Umrah followed by Hajj separately): The pilgrim intends Ihram for Umrah only saying, ‘O Allah, Labayka for Umrah,’ or ‘O Allah, Labayka for Umrah with release until Hajj.’ After completing the Tawaf and Saei for Umrah and cutting hair, the pilgrim will be released from Ihram and its restrictions until the 8th of Dhul Hijja.
Concerning all of the other Hajj rites, they are the same for all the three types of Hajj mentioned above as will be explained below.
If the Muslim intends Ihram, he/she should cut their nails, remove underarm and unwanted body hair, trim moustache and purify by taking bath. Regarding clothing, men should remove any stitched clothes, whether young or adults, uncover their head and wear the Ihram garments (sheet wrapped around the waist and cover the upper body with the other sheet) and sandals. Preferred colour for the sheets is white. After taking bath, it is desirable to pray two Rakaas, reciting Al-Fatiha in the first Rakaa followed by Surat al-Kafiroon. In the second Rakaa, recite Surat Al-Ikhlas after Surat Al-Fatiha. It is also acceptable to recite any other Surat from the holy Quran.
Pilgrims traveling by plane can do the same in their house and delay Ihram until reaching the Meeqat (point of entering the state of Ihram) because entering Ihram before such point is not preferred, unless the pilgrim is worried to pass the Meeqat point without entering Ihram due to being unware of the arrival time or that the arrival of Meeqat may not be announced by the pilot. In such case, it is allowed for the pilgrim to intend Ihram after the plane takes off. On the other hand, those who are traveling by road can do the above mentioned steps before reaching the Meeqat. It is not allowed for pilgrims to pass to enter the area beyond the Meeqat without assuming Ihram
Ihram for Hajj
When Muslim intends Ihram, it is Sunna for him to purify by cutting nails, removing underarm hair, trimming moustache and then taking bath. Women should purify from menstruation. Men should not wear any stitched clothes, whether young or adults, uncover their head and wear the Ihram garments (one sheet wrapped around the waist and cover the upper body with the other sheet) and sandals. Preferred colour for the sheets is white. After taking bath, it is desirable to pray two Rakaas, reciting Al-Fatiha in the first Rakaa followed by Surat al-Kafiroon. In the second Rakaa, recite Surat Al-Ikhlas after Surat Al-Fatiha. It is also sufficient to recite any other Surat from the holy Quran.
Pilgrims traveling by plane can do the same in their house and delay Ihram until reaching the Meeqat (a point some distance from Mecca beyond which a pilgrim may not pass without entering the state of Ihram) because entering Ihram before such point is not preferred, unless the pilgrim is worried to pass the Meeqat point without entering Ihram due to being unware of the arrival time or that the arrival of Meeqat may not be announced by the pilot. In such case, it is allowed for the pilgrim to intend Ihram after the plane takes off. On the other hand, those who are traveling on road can do the above mentioned steps before reaching the Meeqat. It is not allowed for pilgrims to enter the area beyond the Meeqat without assuming Ihram.
Talbiya and its rulings
Talbiya during Ihram is a duty incumbent on men and women. Women recite the Talbiya quietly to themselves. Reciting Talbiya after intending to start the rites is also a duty where the Talbiya is pronounced shortly after the intention to enter the state of Ihram. Talbiya wording is as follows: “Labbayka Allahumma Labbayk, Labbayka La Shareeka Laka Labbayk. Innal-hamda Wal Niemata Laka Wal-Mulk. La Shareeka Laka Labbayk. (O Allah, I respond (in obedience) to You. O Allah, I respond. No partner is there to You, I respond. Indeed, all praise is due to You and to You belongs all the favours and Dominion. No partner is there to You).”
Pilgrims should repeat the Talbiya whenever he/she enters a new state like standing after sitting down, climbing up after going down, or waking up after a sleep. Upon reaching Al Masjid Al Haram, the pilgrim enters from Bab Al Salam, following in steps of the Prophet pbuh. However, if this is not feasible, there is no problem for him/her to enter through any other gateway. Upon entering, the pilgrim should say, “In the name of Allah, and peace be upon the Messenger of Allah. O Allah, forgive me my sins and open to me the gateways of Your mercy.” Upon the first sight of the Kaaba, pilgrims should say, “O Allah, O Allah! Increase this House’s honour, dignity, respect and grant all those who come to it for Hajj or Umrah honour, dignity, respect and righteousness. O Allah! You are the Peace, from You is the Peace. O Allah! Greet us with Peace.” Pilgrims are recommended to recite supplications often.
Saei and its rulings
After Talbiya, the pilgrim proceeds to As-Safa, stands facing the Kaaba and say Takbeer and Tahleel, “Allah is the Greatest, Allah is the Greatest. There is no deity save Allah. He fulfilled His Promise and helped His Servant, and He Alone defeated the (infidel) clans.” Then he/she supplicates, invokes blessings upon the Prophet pbuh and then goes down walking. It is Sunna for men to run between the two green markers, then walk normally until they reach Al Marwa. By reaching to this point the pilgrim completes one circuit. Upon reaching Al Marwa, the pilgrim climbs it and do the same steps done in As-Safa. He/she continues circling the Kaaba until they complete the seven circuits. Going to Al Marwa is one circuit and coming back to As-Safa is another one. For Saei to be acceptable, it should follow the Tawaf. Once the pilgrim completes Saei, he/she should occupy themselves with Talbiya and Dhikr (remembrance of Allah). Those performing Ifrad and Qiran Hajj, should remain in the state of Ihram until the 8th of Dhul Hijja. Meanwhile, in the case of Tamattu, the pilgrim remains in Iharam in Umrah only. After completing Tawaf and Saei for Umrah, the pilgrim should shave his hair or have it clipped short. With this the rites of Umrah are complete and one is free from all the restrictions of Ihram until they assume Ihram for Hajj.
Tawaf and its rulings
Wudu (ablution) is essential before Tawaf as well as covering the intimate parts of the body. The pilgrim heads towards the Black Stone, kisses it if one is able to reach it without harming people with crowding and pushing. If one could not reach the Black Stone, he/she can do Istilam by hand and then put the hand on the mouth. If this is also not possible because the area is crowded, it is sufficient to point to the Black Stone from a distance, saying “Allahu Akbar (Allah is the Greatest). It is not permissible to push others who are doing Tawaf or harm them to reach to the Black Stone.
Once Istilam is done, one should delay a little while at the Yemeni Corner and then starts Tawaf. For Tawaf to be valid, one should complete seven circuits fully without shortening even the length of one span. Thus, in the last circuit the pilgrim is recommended to pass beyond the Black Stone as a precautionary measure. While so doing, the pilgrim should keep Kaaba on his/her left hand side. Whenever passing the Black Stone, one should say Allahu Akbar. In the first three circuits, men are required to do Ramal. Ramal means walking with quick short steps, and it is from Sunna and not obligatory. The pilgrim is also not required to uncover his right shoulder, which is something known as Idhtibaa. During Tawaf, pilgrim is advised to recite supplications much. They should also mind the slow motion in crowded areas. Between the Yemeni Corner and the Black Stone, it is recommended to recite: “Our Lord, give us in this world that which is good and in the Hereafter that which is good and protect us from the torment of Fire.” (Al-Baqara: 201). Upon completing the seven circuits, the pilgrim prays two Rakaas behind Maqam Ibrahim if it is possible with ease, otherwise one can pray in any part of the Masjid al-Haram.
The pilgrim should complete the circuits continually as well as between the Tawaf and the following two Rakaas and between the two Rakaas and Saei.
Staying at Muzdalifah
As soon as pilgrims arrive to Muzdalifah, they are recommended to establish Maghrib and Isha prayers joined and shortened, with one Adhan and two Iqamas. The limits within which staying at Muzdalifah is obligatory are the time taken from getting off, praying Maghrib and Isha, unloading luggage and eating dinner. It is sufficient if the pilgrim stays this much without unloaded their luggage from the car. However, it is desirable to spend the night in Muzdalifah till the dawn, then observe the Fajr prayer there. While in Muzdalifah, it is also desirable to pick up the pebbles for Rami (stoning) the largest pillar (Jamrat al-Aqaba). Before sunrise, pilgrims should leave to Mina.
The Day of Tarwiyah
On the eighth day of Dhul Hijja, each pilgrim should head to Mina to establish Dhuhr, Asr, Magribh, Isha and Fajr prayers, each at its prescribed time. The four Rakaa prayers are shortened. It is from the Sunna that the pilgrim does not leave Mina until sunrise, but it is permissible to do so before sunrise to avoid crowding. At sunrise, the pilgrim moves on to Arafa. Pilgrims should continue repeating the Talbiya from eighth of Dhul Hijja until the ninth morning. At midday, the pilgrims stop Talbiya and occupy themselves with reciting the Quran and supplicating.